For the period to June , 49 of successful candidates passed in German, 94 in French; for the period November , out of a total of successful candidates passed in German, in French. In June , only 3 candidates took German as an obligatory subject, while 40 took French Ortmanns Despite the fact that candidates taking French far outnumbered those taking German, German was in fact felt to be more useful:. For the Officer who means to devote himself to scientific research, German is most important.
French appears to me to have no such claims. Useful as it is on the common level of life, its study as a literary language does little for the mind. Idle boys fly to French […]. Report At the Oxford Local Examinations in , pupils attempted German at the Junior under 16 level compared to 2. By , the Bryce Report found that French was taught in virtually all 32 higher grade and organized science schools surveyed, catering between them to 22, children; but only 11 of those 32 offered German as well as French. These schools also entered children for the Oxford and Cambridge Local examinations.
In higher elementary schools, of 71, children taking a specific optional subject who already made up only 1. In , of 58 Scottish schools, with a total of 14, pupils, 29 schools offered German, to a total of pupils, compared to 53 schools offering French to a total of 2, pupils; all schools offered Latin, taken by a total of 3, pupils Ortmanns From to the mids the Cambridge Syndicate offered a Commercial Certificate including a foreign language element, but it was not a success.
In the first year, only 8 of 49 candidates were awarded Commercial Certificates Report 5 , and the number of entrants had declined to 8 by Girls were, indeed, more likely than boys to learn both French and German because they were not expected to study Latin and Greek. Even when girls did go to school, very different expectations and patterns of education for girls and boys resulted in differing outcomes in language education. Fischer cites some examples of teacher and pupil exchanges between Irish convent schools and their German counterparts in the very late 19 th century.
Already in , more girls took German at Senior level than did boys 38 girls, 25 boys , even though there were far more male candidates overall girls, boys. For example, Henry Weston Eve d. Certainly two prominent proponents of the Reform Movement fall into that category: Walter Rippmann , who was born in Britain to German parents, and clearly brought up bilingual, since he was awarded a First Class B.
The Modern Languages Association inquiry found that only 8 of 23 modern language professors in English universities were British.
Not surprisingly, Walter Rippmann who had found it advisable to anglicise the spelling of his name when war broke out objected. The exchange between Hargreaves and Rippmann now Ripman continued through the issues of Modern Language Teaching 14 pp. However, Siepmann did later produce a Primary German Course intended for pupils a year or two younger Siepmann , and it went into three issues within its first year, suggesting that there was by this stage a market for learning German among somewhat younger pupils.
Whether they would still have learnt French first is not clear. The status of foreign languages in Ireland was in some ways and at some times very different to that in England, however, in part to do with Irish nationalism both before and under the Irish Free State.
German, even more than French, was adopted by this nationalist, de-anglicizing current: in one year , Emil Trechmann, lecturer in modern languages at the University of Sydney from to , published his Passages for Translation into French and German for use in University and school classes in Sydney in , for example.
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Despite his commitment to modern languages, even Otto Siepmann accepted that the classical languages still mattered more than French and German, at least for examination purposes. Modern Languages as a single discipline had won its case by vying with the Classics as the key both to linguistic analysis and great literature, and thus both to developing mental rigour and to providing moral edification. A more sceptical view was expressed by a certain G. The numbers of graduates in Modern Languages increased from 60 in to in , and to by Bayley The ultimate victory of Modern Languages over Classics is evident in the fact that by , twice as many candidates were presenting for French as for Latin in the First Examination for the School Certificate 54, candidates for French, 23, for Latin; ibid.
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History could be read in French, history and geography questions could be answered in French; and the result might be that the boy might feel what he seldom feels now, the joy of mastery. Paradoxically, German was both at first receiving more attention than ever and yet, soon, becoming more endangered than it had been since its introduction into the curriculum a half-century earlier.
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German was, overall, in decline compared to French in the first three decades of the twentieth century. For the trouble with the intellectual grounds on which Modern Languages trumped the Classics, discussed above, was that they did not make the case for more than one foreign language.
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True, G. On the whole, however, scant time in the curriculum and the burden on the pupil pointed to the idea of focussing efforts on just one language. That language was, inevitably, French, because it already dominated, and so — in a circularity that has continued to frustrate — teachers of French were most easily found. After all, inadequate teaching of German could be a serious problem: Fischer cites the case of one school in Ireland in where 27 of 34 pupils from a single school failed their German examination.
Benson further argued:. My own belief is that, if the attention of boys were concentrated on one language, they would attain the knowledge of structure, idiom, and vocabulary that is essential to the success of the process, and instead of constructing a dreary and ugly mosaic in three practically unknown tongues, they might be receiving the benefit of a process which would at once be disciplinary and stimulating. Benson Benson did emphasize the value to be obtained from reading in a foreign language:.
It gives mental proportion, mental perspective; it shows that people of different nationalities approach subjects from different points of view; it gives largeness and breadth to the mental horizon; it corrects the insularity and self-satisfaction that is one of the worst qualities of a complacent and self-absorbed nationality; it introduces the mind to a whole range of novel ideas and emotions; it shows the different scale of qualities among the nations.
I venture to believe that this is possible with a single language only, for most people, and that it is far more possible with a modern than with an ancient tongue […]. I claim, then, that a single modern language should be made the basis of our linguistic instruction; and, though I am inclined to think that we Englishmen are more in need of the kind of message which German literature can give us: its lofty emotion, its intellectual enthusiasm, its unaffected idealism, yet I believe that French is probably the more practical choice, because of its greater variety, its more tangible imaginativeness, and its exquisite precision and delicacy of literary form.
If one agreed that only one language was necessary, then, French was the obvious first choice. In , 65 of the most important private schools still taught German, but between and , 38 schools had given it up as a subject though 13 of them in the two years before the war. In , according to a report in Modern Language Teaching , While German did not completely disappear from Rugby, it lost ground to French; Latin remained secure because it was still a requirement for university admission. In Ireland, only 7.
Repeated efforts in official and subject association reports and initiatives to promote what came to be known as LOTF Languages Other Than French, the very invention of such an acronym speaks volumes did not greatly change the situation. By the second half of the century, small steps were being taken in the direction of diversification. The resurgence appears to be reflected in the number of textbooks in my working bibliography, which contains well over new titles published in the s, compared to just over 30 for the s. French entered school curricula as the first foreign language, and has never really wavered from that position.
German, as the second language, has, however, been more vulnerable to changes in social attitudes and in policy and has now ceded its position to Spanish. Whether even these upheavals will be enough to shake the primacy of French in British education remains to be seen.
Special Reports on Educational Subjects, vol. London: H. German exercises: specially arranged to accompany the Skeleton German grammar. A manual of German commercial correspondence Methuen following his similar manual for French, published London: Methuen. History of Education , 18, Journal of Educational Adminstration and History , 23, Modern Language Teaching , 3, ; also Journal of Education , 2, On the German Language.
Circular No. Modern languages re-issued Educational Pamphlet , n o. Educational Pamphlets , n o. Second Interim Report of the committee of education for Salesmanship. Modern Languages. A documentary history from contemporary periodicals, , 10 vol. Modern Language Teaching , 4, , Baumeister ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Contemporary Review , , Oxford: Oxford University Press, Report of the Commissioners on Secondary Education.
Former ed. The Yearbook of Education London: Evans, First Year. Containing easy lessons on the regular accidence. London: Macmillan. EVE, Henry Weston A School German Grammar. London: Nutt. Das Deutschlandbild der Iren Heidelberg: Winter. In Graham Jefcoate, William A. Hildesheim: Olms, Bosbach, C. Hiery ed. Modern Languages in the Curriculum. Revised edition. Cambridge: CUP. Page block coloured. Contents otherwise clean and sound throughout. Text clean, tight and bright. Spine and cover very good. Small discreet stamp inside cover.
Publisher: Koln, Spine ends and leading corners are slightly bumped and worn. Binding is intact, contents are clean and clear. By: KOnig, Wolfgang Mayer.
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Publisher: Wien, Bergland Verlag: Paperback in good condition. German language. The cover is scored and worn, with slight sunning on the spine. Light foxing on the page block. Minor creases on a few pages. All text is clear, with sound binding.